THE air in China can be deadly and not just because of the smog. Some 300m Chinese adults are smokers and, with over 700m people exposed to second-hand smoke, the country is paying a high price for its addiction. The prevalence of smoking is greater in countries like Austria and Russia since, although more than half of Chinese men smoke, barely 2% of women do. But China is still the world’s largest cigarette market and, on present trends, 100m people stand to die from tobacco-related illnesses this century. The resultant economic burden—estimated in the tens of billions of dollars—will soar as the economy and the cost of health care grow.